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- Grand Prairie, TX, USA • May 20, 2023

Scammer's phone (816) 235-1365
Scammer's website
Scammer's address 5115 Oak St Ste 112, Kansas City, MO 64112, USA
Country United States
Victim Location TX 75052, USA
Total money lost $22,000
Type of a scam Other

Auxiliary Aids and Services for Postsecondary Students with Disabilities

Higher Education's Obligations Under Section 504 and Title II of the ADA

U.S. Department of Education

Office for Civil Rights

Washington, D.C.

Revised September 1998

En español PDF (154.16K)

Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973

In 1973, Congress passed Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (Section 504), a law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of physical or mental disability (29 U.S.C. Section 794). It states:

No otherwise qualified individual with a disability in the United States . . . shall, solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance . . . .

The Office for Civil Rights in the U.S. Department of Education enforces regulations implementing Section 504 with respect to programs and activities that receive funding from the Department. The Section 504 regulation applies to all recipients of this funding, including colleges, universities, and postsecondary vocational education and adult education programs. Failure by these higher education schools to provide auxiliary aids to students with disabilities that results in a denial of a program benefit is discriminatory and prohibited by Section 504.

Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) prohibits state and local governments from discriminating on the basis of disability. The Department enforces Title II in public colleges, universities, and graduate and professional schools. The requirements regarding the provision of auxiliary aids and services in higher education institutions described in the Section 504 regulation are generally included in the general nondiscrimination provisions of the Title II regulation.

Postsecondary School Provision of Auxiliary Aids

The Section 504 regulation contains the following requirement relating to a postsecondary school's obligation to provide auxiliary aids to qualified students who have disabilities:

A recipient . . . shall take such steps as are necessary to ensure that no handicapped student is denied the benefits of, excluded from participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under the education program or activity operated by the recipient because of the absence of educational auxiliary aids for students with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking skills.

The Title II regulation states:

A public entity shall furnish appropriate auxiliary aids and services where necessary to afford an individual with a disability an equal opportunity to participate in, and enjoy the benefits of, a service, program, or activity conducted by a public entity.

It is, therefore, the school's responsibility to provide these auxiliary aids and services in a timely manner to ensure effective participation by students with disabilities. If students are being evaluated to determine their eligibility under Section 504 or the ADA, the recipient must provide auxiliary aids in the interim.

Postsecondary Student Responsibilities

A postsecondary student with a disability who is in need of auxiliary aids is obligated to provide notice of the nature of the disabling condition to the college and to assist it in identifying appropriate and effective auxiliary aids. In elementary and secondary schools, teachers and school specialists may have arranged support services for students with disabilities. However, in postsecondary schools, the students themselves must identify the need for an auxiliary aid and give adequate notice of the need. The student's notification should be provided to the appropriate representative of the college who, depending upon the nature and scope of the request, could be the school's Section 504 or ADA coordinator, an appropriate dean, a faculty advisor, or a professor. Unlike elementary or secondary schools, colleges may ask the student, in response to a request for auxiliary aids, to provide supporting diagnostic test results and professional prescriptions for auxiliary aids. A college also may obtain its own professional determination of whether specific requested auxiliary aids are necessary.

Examples of Auxiliary Aids

Some of the various types of auxiliary aids and services may include:

taped texts




videotext displays

television enlargers

talking calculators

electronic readers

Braille calculators, printers, or typewriters

telephone handset amplifiers

closed caption decoders

open and closed captioning

voice synthesizers

specialized gym equipment

calculators or keyboards with large buttons

reaching device for library use

raised-line drawing kits

assistive listening devices

assistive listening systems

telecommunications devices for deaf persons.

Technological advances in electronics have improved vastly participation by students with disabilities in educational activities. Colleges are not required to provide the most sophisticated auxiliary aids available; however, the aids provided must effectively meet the needs of a student with a disability. An institution has flexibility in choosing the specific aid or service it provides to the student, as long as the aid or service selected is effective. These aids should be selected after consultation with the student who will use them.

Effectiveness of Auxiliary Aids

No aid or service will be useful unless it is successful in equalizing the opportunity for a particular student with a disability to participate in the education program or activity. Not all students with a similar disability benefit equally from an identical auxiliary aid or service. The regulation refers to this complex issue of effectiveness in several sections, including:

Auxiliary aids may include taped texts, interpreters or other effective methods of making orally delivered materials available to students with hearing impairments, readers in libraries for students with visual impairments, classroom equipment adapted for use by students with manual impairments, and other similar services and actions.

There are other references to effectiveness in the general provisions of the Section 504 regulation which state, in part, that a recipient may not:

Provide a qualified handicapped person with an aid, benefit, or service that is not as effective as that provided to others; or

Provide different or separate aid, benefits, or services to handicapped persons or to any class of handicapped persons unless such action is necessary to provide qualified handicapped persons with aid, benefits, or services that are as effective as those provided to others.

The Title II regulation contains comparable provisions.

The Section 504 regulation also states:

[A]ids, benefits, and services, to be equally effective, are not required to produce the identical result or level of achievement for handicapped and nonhandicapped persons, but must afford handicapped persons equal opportunity to obtain the same result, to gain the same benefit, or to reach the same level of achievement, in the most integrated setting appropriate to the person's needs.

The institution must analyze the appropriateness of an aid or service in its specific context. For example, the type of assistance needed in a classroom by a student who is hearing-impaired may vary, depending upon whether the format is a large lecture hall or a seminar. With the one-way communication of a lecture, the service of a notetaker may be adequate, but in the two-way communication of a seminar, an interpreter may be needed. College officials also should be aware that in determining what types of auxiliary aids and services are necessary under Title II of the ADA, the institution must give primary consideration to the requests of individuals with disabilities.

Cost of Auxiliary Aids

Postsecondary schools receiving federal financial assistance must provide effective auxiliary aids to students who are disabled. If an aid is necessary for classroom or other appropriate (nonpersonal) use, the institution must make it available, unless provision of the aid would cause undue burden. A student with a disability may not be required to pay part or all of the costs of that aid or service. An institution may not limit what it spends for auxiliary aids or services or refuse to provide auxiliary aids because it believes that other providers of these services exist, or condition its provision of auxiliary aids on availability of funds. In many cases, an institution may meet its obligation to provide auxiliary aids by assisting the student in obtaining the aid or obtaining reimbursement for the cost of an aid from an outside agency or organization, such as a state rehabilitation agency or a private charitable organization. However, the institution remains responsible for providing the aid.

Personal Aids and Services

An issue that is often misunderstood by postsecondary officials and students is the provision of personal aids and services. Personal aids and services, including help in bathing, dressing, or other personal care, are not required to be provided by postsecondary institutions. The Section 504 regulation states:

Recipients need not provide attendants, individually prescribed devices, readers for personal use or study, or other devices or services of a personal nature.

Title II of the ADA similarly states that personal services are not required.

In order to ensure that students with disabilities are given a free appropriate public education, local education agencies are required to provide many services and aids of a personal nature to students with disabilities when they are enrolled in elementary and secondary schools. However, once students with disabilities graduate from a high school program or its equivalent, education institutions are no longer required to provide aids, devices, or services of a personal nature.

Postsecondary schools do not have to provide personal services relating to certain individual academic activities. Personal attendants and individually prescribed devices are the responsibility of the student who has a disability and not of the institution. For example, readers may be provided for classroom use but institutions are not required to provide readers for personal use or for help during individual study time.

Questions Commonly Asked by Postsecondary Schools and Their Students

Q: What are a college's obligations to provide auxiliary aids for library study?

A: Libraries and some of their significant and basic materials must be made accessible by the recipient to students with disabilities. Students with disabilities must have the appropriate auxiliary aids needed to locate and obtain library resources. The college library's basic index of holdings (whether formatted on-line or on index cards) must be accessible. For example, a screen and keyboard (or card file) must be placed within reach of a student using a wheelchair. If a Braille index of holdings is not available for blind students, readers must be provided for necessary assistance.

Articles and materials that are library holdings and are required for course work must be accessible to all students enrolled in that course. This means that if material is required for the class, then its text must be read for a blind student or provided in Braille or on tape. A student's actual study time and use of these articles are considered personal study time and the institution has no further obligation to provide additional auxiliary aids.

Q: What if an instructor objects to the use of an auxiliary or personal aid?

A: Sometimes postsecondary instructors may not be familiar with Section 504 or ADA requirements regarding the use of an auxiliary or personal aid in their classrooms. Most often, questions arise when a student uses a tape recorder. College teachers may believe recording lectures is an infringement upon their own or other students' academic freedom, or constitutes copyright violation.

The instructor may not forbid a student's use of an aid if that prohibition limits the student's participation in the school program. The Section 504 regulation states:

A recipient may not impose upon handicapped students other rules, such as the prohibition of tape recorders in classrooms or of dog guides in campus buildings, that have the effect of limiting the participation of handicapped students in the recipient's education program or activity.

In order to allow a student with a disability the use of an effective aid and, at the same time, protect the instructor, the institution may require the student to sign an agreement so as not to infringe on a potential copyright or to limit freedom of speech.

Q: What if students with disabilities require auxiliary aids during an examination?

A: A student may need an auxiliary aid or service in order to successfully complete a course exam. This may mean that a student be allowed to give oral rather than written answers. It also may be possible for a student to present a tape containing the oral examination response. A test should ultimately measure a student's achievements and not the extent of the disability.

Q: Can postsecondary institutions treat a foreign student with disabilities who needs auxiliary aids differently than American students?

A: No, an institution may not treat a foreign student who needs auxiliary aids differently than an American student. A postsecondary institution must provide to a foreign student with a disability the same type of auxiliary aids and services it would provide to an American student with a disability. Section 504 and the ADA require that the provision of services be based on a student's disability and not on such other criteria as nationality.

Q: Are institutions responsible for providing auxiliary services to disabled students in filling out financial aid and student employment applications, or other forms of necessary paperwork?

A: Yes, an institution must provide services to disabled students who may need assistance in filling out aid applications or other forms. If the student requesting assistance is still in the process of being evaluated to determine eligibility for an auxiliary aid or service, help with this paperwork by the institution is mandated in the interim.

Q: Does a postsecondary institution have to provide auxiliary aids and services for a nondegree student?

A: Yes, students with disabilities who are auditing classes or who otherwise are not working for a degree must be provided auxiliary aids and services to the same extent as students who are in a degree-granting program.

- Oak Island, NC, USA • Apr 07, 2023

Scammer's phone (999) 999-9999
Scammer's address 4889 Willison Street, Saint Paul, MN 55113, USA
Scammer's email [email protected]
Country United States
Victim Location NC 28465, USA
Total money lost $83
Type of a scam Online Purchase

The scammers use multiple websites that are almost identical except with different addresses: - 4889 Willison Street Roseville MN US 55113 (no such address) - 4117 Diane Street Los Angeles CA US 90017 (no such address)

When you purchase on their site via PayPal, the payment is then listed as going to Ryan Ferguson [email protected]

I called Centralia College in Washington State and they said that their email addressed do not include numbers after the name.

I reported the incident to PayPal and because I "authorized" the payment, they refuse to go after the scammers.

- Oklahoma City, OK, USA • Apr 04, 2023

Scammer's phone (888) 374-4978
Scammer's website
Scammer's address 9348 Civic Center Dr, Beverly Hills, CA 90210, USA
Country United States
Victim Location OK 73142, USA
Type of a scam Tech Support

First tech support number to appear after google search. Impersonating customer service.

- Longwood, FL, USA • Mar 30, 2023

Scammer's phone (844) 688-1156
Scammer's website
Country United States
Victim Location FL 32750, USA
Total money lost $398
Type of a scam Tech Support

Tried to get to put money in accounts and buy gift cards. Accounts were shut down after this. Never placed order for this at all.

- Piedmont, SC, USA • Mar 30, 2023

Scammer's phone 8437094083
Scammer's website
Scammer's address Piedmont, SC 29673, USA
Scammer's email [email protected]
Country United States
Victim Location SC 29673, USA
Type of a scam Other

Received a phone call from a person stating they were with Premier travel.

Normally, I do not answer phone numbers I don’t know. On a fluke I answered this one.

After asking for my credit card information, I insisted that I was no longer interested! I allowed myself to be convinced by Barry Kaplan that this was totally up board and there would be no presentation or anything that would tie you up while you were visiting on your vacation.

However, I insisted that he send me something in the mail that I could read over and I would get back with them. If not, no deal and then receive the phone call from Berry, Kaplan. His name was on the number and he stated that he would he would send it to me via email and when I get back with him I said it will have to be later today. I have a doctors appointment, he was very insistent that I open that email and sign it right then to complete the deal. I have a feeling that they may have charged my credit card anyway. I am checking that VISA account every hour, so far no pending transactions. Maybe my luck is changing for the better.

I am not sure what you all can do if anything, but the public needs to be warned. Tell CNN Fox News tell them all to warn the public.

- Plymouth, MI, USA • Mar 15, 2023

Scammer's website
Scammer's email [email protected]
Country United States
Victim Location MI 48170, USA
Type of a scam Phishing

Got many emails claiming to be from the and to click a link to view complaint. Link in all emails for complaint link were to different emails from and

- Detroit, MI, USA • Mar 14, 2023

Scammer's website
Scammer's email [email protected]
Country United States
Victim Location MI 48210, USA
Type of a scam Other

tried to get us to download a "file"

• Jan 24, 2023

Scammer's website
Scammer's email [email protected]
Type of a scam Online Purchase

Subject: A consumer has messaged you from your Business Profile

Important: Please do not respond directly to this email, as this email address is unmonitored. To reply, contact the consumer at: [email protected]

Name: Dongwon Pipe

Contact Email: [email protected]

*** *** **** ******** *** ******* ******** ******* **** ********************************************************************************... Message:

Hello, We are hoping you are reachable via this mail. We would like you to contribute to the company's continued market domination in the North America Branch as you have been identified to be a potential fit for this position. Come enjoy a unique and positive company culture where leaders lead with their heart. I would like to know if you will have free time to work as our Subsidiary Manager on a Full time or Part-time basis should you choose. We are taking companies and individuals to get involved in large scale Metal and equipment management. This is a partnership (contract). Please advise should you require description to be available in your response to us Sincerely Suzuki Koichi HR Consultant Dongwon Pipe Company Ltd Co., Ltd. 28, Bukbisan-ro (Ihyeon-dong) 6-gil, Seo-gu, Daegu, Korea.

I am Colonel Dr RR Kumar Retd Hyderabad, India. I had booked Hair Trimmer from Wishingoal on 23 apr 20 for Rs1300. when I paid it by HDFC Debit card, it showed some dollars which came to Rs4699. I imdt cancelled the order and requested them to refund my money. I imdt complianed to my Bankers who in turn blocked my card and asked me to raise a Dispute form, which I did. So far I must have sent them 50 mails requesting to refund my money. Wishingoal raised a Refund Ticket No WISO 4276329 vide their mail dt 16 july 20, but not refunded my money till date. I therefore
request you to initiate action action against them and ensure my Refund my money imdt. I also complianed to yhrice and also to They also published my compliant vide ID No 86526 dt 14 nov 20mail. I therefore request your kind auth to ensure my refund my money imdt.
Thanking you
COlonel Dr RR kumar Retd

Imdt action is rquired at your end.

they are on the phone trying to scam me my e-mail is [email protected]

Scammer's phone 2536421753
Type of a scam Tech Support
Initial means of contact Not applicable

Individual posing as representative called to advise that we were refunding $600 refund for security services on computer. Stated they had to transfer to a senior rep to process request. Need to be at computer and ready to give IP address to receive refund. Advised that this is a scam to individual and then hung up.

- Dallas, TX, USA

Scammer's phone 800-111-4619
Scammer's address Dallas, TX 75231, USA
Country United States
Victim Location TX 75231, USA
Type of a scam Phishing
Initial means of contact Not applicable

Our office received multiple calls from a woman claiming to be from the Texas, but I wasn’t available to take the call and she refused to leave a voicemail and would just hang up when speaking with our Receptionist. I called back the phone number that showed in our call log which was 1-800-111-4619, but the call would not go through and the number would show as not valid to call back. The woman called our office again and I was finally able to speak with her. I questioned who she was and what was the reason for her call. The woman told me her name was Sandra Davidson with the and she said that they are finishing up on an annual development and needed information from us. I told her that I didn’t have any information available (I didn’t want to disclose anything to her) but if she could provide me with a call back phone number then we could contact her back. She refused to give me a phone number and said that they can’t receive incoming calls to their department, then the call was disconnected.

Scammer's phone 814-230-2935
Type of a scam Tech Support
Initial means of contact Not applicable

Mike Microsoft calling for $8,000 for tech support back in October and now he is receiving the calls from number above stating they are the and they are going to refund his money. No complaint was filed with the and would have no reason for the to contact him. This was not the but assuming another scammer attempting to get more bank information to deduct more funds.

- Port Richey, FL, USA

Scammer's phone (302) 414-5549
Country United States
Victim Location FL 34668, USA
Type of a scam Phishing
Initial means of contact Not applicable

Received a Call from a Richard Parker claiming to be from the saying that "James Williams from California gained accessed to our Pay Pal account and charged $399.99 to our account" Richard asked if we wanted to accept or cancel the charge. I said to cancel. Then Richard proceeded to ask for my address, account numbers, paypal information and if I had a computer and internet access. I then turned him over to my husband and my husband told him he would call the to clarify this call. My Husband called and was warned this is a SCAM and to not provide them with any information and not answers their calls.

- Irving, TX, USA

Scammer's phone 1-800-208-3419
Scammer's address 1255 Corporate Drive Suite 100
Country United States
Victim Location TX 75038, USA
Type of a scam Moving
Initial means of contact Not applicable

I received a call from a Gale Santos claiming to be with the of Texas, I asked her 4 times and she confirmed that yes she is with of Texas and she wanted to know if we have found a place to relocate our business. I ignored the question and I asked what is their mailing address and she said 12555 Corporate Drive in Suite number 100 in Irving, Texas. When I asked for a call back number she asked me if we had found a place to move once again, and I said I will have to verify with my manager can I please have your call back number and she hung up. I knew they were pretending to be with the since the moment I picked up the phone that is why I asked for questions. I followed up by calling the actual and it was confirmed by the agent that they are not associated with the information I provided.

- Redmond, WA, USA

Scammer's phone 888-213-6000
Scammer's email Not given
Country United States
Victim Location WA 98052, USA
Type of a scam Phishing
Initial means of contact Not applicable

Received multiple telephone calls from someone who claims to be a representative of the and goes by the name Sam Holison. This person has a heavy non-English speaking accent. He provided the following phone number (888) 213-6000. This number is not valid.
He claims to be doing annual research of BBB members and wanted to know when we might be moving our business. When pressed about the unusual nature of this call coming from the BBB, he became agitated and then terminated the call.

- Columbus, OH, USA

Country United States
Victim Location OH 43235, USA
Type of a scam Phishing

Our senior center received an email from [email protected] with a case number advising us to respond through a link.

- Mercer, WI, USA

Scammer's phone 7085059201
Scammer's email [email protected]
Country United States
Victim Location WI 54547, USA
Type of a scam Home Improvement
Initial means of contact Not applicable

We recieved a text message that stated he was referred to our business by the as a trusted painter and asked for our email address. He then sent an email regarding a painting job that he needed done asap and said he would pay by check 50% up front and the balance once completed. He also stated that he already placed and order for hte paints and that we did not need to come to the house to look at it before starting the job. The address he gave to us is currently listed for sale

Type of a scam Identity Theft
Initial means of contact Not applicable

Had a message on phone from someone claiming to be the stating my identity was stolen and I was to press 1 to contact them. I hung up and called the of Saskatchewan and verified it was a scam as the doesn't call to tell you that.

- Tucson, AZ, USA

Scammer's phone 15426354210
Scammer's address Tucson, AZ, USA
Country United States
Victim Location AZ 85756, USA
Type of a scam Phishing
Initial means of contact Not applicable

They call claiming to be George or Tracy from the BBB. They try to ask for personal information to confirm my name, claiming there is suspicious or fraud reports about you. They say it will impact my social security. Do not give any information out. Call the and report these scammers.

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